Graphene and Applications
Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb-like pattern. Graphene is considered to be the world’s thinnest, strongest and most conductive material – to both electricity and heat. All this properties are exciting researchers and businesses around the world as graphene has the revolutionize entire industries – in the fields of electricity, conductivity, energy generation, batteries, sensors and more.
Optics and Laser Technology
Optics and Lasers in Engineering aims to provide an international forum for the interchange of information on the development and application of optical techniques and laser technology and engineering. Emphasis is placed on contributions dealing with the practical use of methods and devices, the evaluation of results and developments and enhancement of solutions and new theoretical foundations for experimental methods. Optics and Lasers in Engineering reflects the main areas in which optical methods are being used and developed in an engineering environment.
Materials for Green Technology
Materials for Green Technology is now widely recognized that the climate systems are warming: there is also medium confidence that other effects of regional climate change on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers. Global GHG emissions due to human activities have grown since pre-industrial times, with an increase of 70 per cent between 1970 and 2004. Anthropogenic warming could lead to some impacts that are abrupt or irreversible, depending upon the rate and magnitude of the climate change, including severe species loss.
Nanobiotechnology is a discipline in which tools from nanotechnology are developed and applied to study biological phenomena. For example, nanoparticles can serve as probes, sensors or vehicles for biomolecule delivery in cellular systems.
- Protein engineering
- Supra molecular chemistry
Big data in Materials Science
Many, probably most, areas in the basic and applied sciences and engineering are increasingly facing the challenge of dealing with massive amounts of data, nowadays commonly addressed as “big data “. This big-data challenge is not only about storing and processing huge amounts of data, but also, and in particular, it is a chance for new methodology and understanding, as it opens qualitatively for new routes for doing research.
The number of possible materials, including organic and inorganic materials, surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures, as well as hybrids of the mentioned systems, is practically infinite. Less than 200,000 materials are “known” to exist, but only for very few of these “known” materials, the basic properties (elasticity constants, plasticity, piezoelectric tensors, conductivity, etc.) have been determined. When considering 60 commercial elements blended together, there is essentially an infinite number of compounds to be explored.
Corrosion engineering and corrosion protection
The focus will be on the fundamentals of corrosion engineering and corrosion prevention of metallic and alloy structures as well as on non-metallic composites and hybrid materials. Recent challenges and opportunities in corrosion of advanced composites used in the automotive, aerospace, and marine industries as well as for underground structures for oil, gas, geothermal and tidal wave technologies will also be included. Different types of corrosion, methods of corrosion protection and prevention, optimum engineering design of corrosion resistance parts and components, standard corrosion tests, responsibilities of corrosion engineers, and a process for setting-up an advanced corrosion laboratory will be discussed. This course also covers most traditional and non-traditional tests for corrosion studies, including real-time characterization techniques and analysis of corrosion phenomenon and corrosion monitoring principles.
Nano Physics and Nano chemistry
Nanoscience is the study of small scale matter, the minuscule building blocks of the material and biological worlds. Typically nanoscientists study materials of less than 100 nanometers. 1 nanometer is one billionth of a meter. A human hair is about 50,000 – 100,000nm wide. Nanotechnologists are concerned with the behaviour of materials at these small dimensions and how they can be manipulated to do useful things.
Nano chemists develop new pharmaceutical products, structural materials, electronic device components, light-emitting materials, and many other products, many already available commercially. Nano chemists can also study the health and safety effects of airborne and water-borne nano-sized particulates or use nanoparticles to clean up or neutralize pollutants. Instrument specialists can develop new methods for studying materials on the nano-scale, or they can train and assist students and customers in the use of these instruments.
Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Materials
Material technological know-how has a fundamental have an effect on metallurgy also. Powder metallurgy is a time period overlaying a huge collection of publications wherein materials or components are added utilizing metallic powders. They can live far from, or unbelievably lessen, the need to apply metal elimination shapes and can reduce the costs. Pyrometallurgy consolidates heat treatment of minerals and metallurgical metals and thinks to well known and substantial changes within the substances to enable recuperation of beneficial metals. An aggregate studying of metallurgy can assist us to isolate the metal in a more achievable manner and can be used to extra-large vicinity. The extraction of efficient minerals or different topographical materials from the earth is referred to as Mining and Metallurgy is the sphere of Materials Science that sport plans with bodily and manufactured nature of the metal and intermetallic blends and mixes.
Glass Science and Technologies
Glass Science and Technologies
Functional materials represent a fast growing set of advanced materials and composites, some properties of which (shape, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, color etc.) are responsive to external stimuli (thermal, electrical, mechanical, light etc.). These can include, for example, ferroelectricity, thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity, magnetism, energy storage functions, magneto and electro strictive materials for sensors and actuators, phase transforming materials, shape memory alloys or modern functional coatings and films. Functional materials are found in all classes of materials – ceramics, metals, polymers and organic molecules.
Nanowires and Nanocrystals
The unique aspects of nanowires, such as large surface area, quantum confinement, and effective strain relaxation, promise improved performance compared to conventional bulk or thin film technology. All nanowire researchers are invited to contribute your original research results or review-style article on experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of semiconductor nanowires.
A nanocrystal is a fabric particle having as a minimum one size smaller than 100 nanometres, based on quantum dots (a nanoparticle) and composed of atoms in both a single- or poly-crystalline association. The length of nanocrystals distinguishes them from huge crystals.
Cancer nanotechnology & tissue engineering
Nanotechnology cancer therapy extends beyond drug delivery into the creation of new therapeutics available only through use of nanomaterial properties. Although small compared to cells, nanoparticles are large enough to encapsulate many small molecule compounds, which can be of multiple types. At the same time, the relatively large surface area of nanoparticle can be functionalized with ligands, including small molecules, DNA or RNA strands, peptides, aptamers or antibodies.
Tissue engineering is the usage of aggregate of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical elements to enhance or replace biological tissues. Tissue engineering entails the usage of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a clinical motive. While it changed into once categorized as a sub-area of biomaterials, having grown in scope and significance it is able to be taken into consideration as a subject in its very own.
Manufacturing technologies increase production efficiency and product quality. Fraunhofer researchers are focusing their efforts on new, environmentally friendly manufacturing techniques suitable for large-series production. Such solutions include optimized forming, bonding and powder techniques along with microassembly, coating techniques that do not damage paintwork, and laser technology. In future, lasers will be used to melt, weld and cut, replacing conventional welding and cutting methods.
Polymer Science and Engineering
Polymers are molecules that contain many atoms, typically tens of thousands to millions. While many polymers occur naturally as products of biological processes, synthetic polymers are made by chemical processes that combine many small units, called monomers, together in chains, branched chains, or more complicated geometries. Starch, cellulose, proteins, and DNA are examples of natural polymers, while nylon, Teflon, and polyethylene are examples of the synthetic variety. Both classes possess a number of highly useful properties that are as much a consequence of the large size of these molecules as of their chemical composition.
Industrial Coating Materials and alloys
Metals and alloys are established materials that are used in construction, which describes various features such as recycling and life cycle assessment. Industrial Coating Materials and alloys consists of various sections covering ferrous alloys, stainless steel and non-ferrous metals and alloys. In the ferrous alloy section, cast iron, wrought iron and steel are described. There is a comprehensive description of the various types of stainless steel including, ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, precipitation hardening and duplex stainless steel. In the non-ferrous metals and alloy section, there are descriptions of aluminum, copper and copper alloys, and lead. Corrosion is related to durability, thus the various types of corrosion are described including general, pitting, crevice, galvanic and high-temperature corrosion.
Ceramics and Magnetic Materials and Composite Materials
Ceramics are the strong comprising metals which might be inside the principal held in covalent and ionic bond. Ceramics are inorganic compounds constitutes of both non-steel or metalloids atoms. These are robust in compression, prone in shearing and strain. The materials which is made from or more materials which can be having their very own respective chemical and physical properties together to form a different compound with different properties to the parent compounds are called composite materials. Ceramic composite substances or ceramic matrix substances are ceramic fibers rooted in a ceramic matrix, thus forming a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic fibers.
Materials and Metals
Metal fabrication range in complexity with respect to the desired qualities of the end product and the composition of the materials in use. Strength, conductivity, hardness and resistance to corrosion are all commonly desired properties. Through varying techniques in cutting, bending and welding, these metals can be used in a variety of products ranging from appliances and toys, to larger structures like furnaces, duct-work and heavy machinery.